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The Scythians. an ancient cannabis using tribe.

 
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Ferre
Cannabis Sacrament Minister.
Cannabis Sacrament Minister.


Joined: 14 Apr 2003
Posts: 4307
Location: Amsterdam

PostPosted: Sun Oct 05, 2003 3:12 pm    Post subject: The Scythians. an ancient cannabis using tribe. Reply with quote

The Scythians were a barbaric group of pre-Common Era nomadic tribes
who are a fascinating example of an ancient cannabis using group.

The Scythians played a very important part in the Ancient World from the
seventh to first century BC. They were expert horsemen, and were one of
the earliest peoples to master the art of riding and using horse-drawn
covered wagons. This early high mobility is probably why most scholars
credit them with the spread of cannabis knowledge throughout the
ancient world. Indeed, the Scythian people travelled and settled
extensively throughout Europe, the Mediterranean, Central Asia, and
Russia, bringing their knowledge of the spiritual and practical uses
for cannabis with them.

Scythian Society & Dress

The Scythians (as the Greeks referred to them) or Sakas (as the
Persians knew them) are believed to have been of Iranian origin. They
shared a common language, and maintained well-used trade routes that
connected their many distant settlements. Although they were nomadic,
the Scythians had a single patriarchal sovereign that the different
chieftains all paid tribute to. This leader had an entourage of wealthy
nobles who acted as his courtiers, and his position was passed on to
his son at his death.

The Scythians had no written language, so much of what is known about
them has been derived from the many precious and exquisitely crafted
artifacts found in their frozen tombs in Russia, Kazyktstan and the
Eurasian plains. These precious items included weapons, jewelry and
clothing, and were meant to follow the deceased into the afterlife.
They can be viewed in Russian museums, well preserved from their long
stay in the frozen tombs.

The Encyclopedia Britannica describes the Scythian wardrobe as follows:


Many Royal Scyths wore bronze helmets and chain-mail jerkins of the
Greek type, lined with red felt. Their shields were generally round and
made of leather, wood, or iron, and were often decorated with a central
gold ornament in the form of an animal, but other tribesmen carried
square or rectangular ones.

All used a double-curved bow, shooting over the horse's left shoulder;
arrows had trefoil-shaped heads made, according to date, of bronze,
iron, or bone. Arrows and bow were carried in a gorytos (bow case)
slung from the left side of the belt.

Their swords were generally of the Persian type, with an intricately
ornamented heart-shaped or triangular crosspiece. ...the sheaths were
often encased in gold worked into embossed designs and offset with
paste or ivory inlay and gems.

Their knives were of various shapes and lengths, some being curved in
the Chinese manner. They wore the dagger attached to the left leg by
straps, and many carried spears or standards surmounted by bronze
terminals depicting real or imaginary beasts.

The Scythian's horses were also outfitted in beautiful and ornate
costumes, and were seen ridden for the first time among many of the
peoples they descended upon.

Many of the Scythians had full body tattoos with extremely intricate
tribal designs, depicting both real and imaginary beasts as well as
events from their mythology. Looking like the forerunners of modern-day
Hell's Angels, the fierce appearance of the Scythian nomads had a
formidably terrifying effect on the people whose lands they invaded.

The astonishing victories of the Scythians brought them a great deal of
fame, and much of Western Persia fell under the rule of Scythian
chieftains. It has been recorded that they invaded Syria and Judea
around 625 BC, and even reached the borders of Egypt where peace terms
were reached with them by the intimidated rulers of that kingdom.

Equality in War

The act of war was one in which the Scythian women are said to have
participated in equally with the men. Scythian women were tattooed like
their mates, and the ancient historian Diordorus commented that
Scythian women 'fight like the men and are nowise inferior to them in
bravery'.

It has been recorded that Scythian women had to kill three enemies in
battle before marrying, and that a mastectomy of the right breast was
performed on female infants so that their pectoral muscle wouldn't
weaken and they would be able to brandish a sword better!

The Cimmerian Connection

It was the horseback riding Scythians who overtook the fierce Cimmerian
infantry, which fought on foot and didn't have horses.

Most readers will probably be familiar with the Cimmerians as the
people who were later popularized in the famous fictional tales of the
displaced Hyperborean Era warrior, Conan the Cimmerian, by Robert E.
Howard and later L. Sprague DeCamp. The fierce horseback-riding raiders
in the scene at the beginning of macho director John Milius', Conan the
Barbarian, who rape and pillage the young Conan's tribe, are meant to
depict the ancient Scythians.

Cannabis and the Dead

Cannabis was an integral part of the Scythian cult of the dead, wherein
homage was paid to the memory of their departed leaders. After the
death and burial of their king, the Scythians would purify themselves
by setting up small tepee-like structures which they would enter to
inhale the fumes of hemp seeds (and the resinous flower calyxes
surrounding the seeds) thrown onto red-hot stones.

In a famous passage written in about 450 B.C., Herodotus describes
these funeral rites as follows:

...when, therefore, the Scythians have taken some seed of this hemp,
they creep under the cloths and put the seeds on the red hot stones;
but this being put on smokes, and produces such a steam, that no
Grecian vapour-bath would surpass it. The Scythians, transported by the
vapour, shout aloud.

It is most likely the seeds described by Herodotus were seeded buds,
and that the charred seeds found by archeologists are what was left
over from the burnt buds.

Proving the Myth

Herodotus' ancient records of the Scythian hemp rites were once
believed to be mythical, but they were verified in 1929, with the
discovery of a Scythian tomb in Pazyryk, Western Altai, by Professor S.
I. Rudenko. As cannabis expert Ernest Abel explains in Marihuana, the
First 12,000 Years:

Digging into some ancient ruins near the Altai Mountains on the border
between Siberia and Outer Mongolia, Rudenko found a trench about 160
feet square and about 20 feet deep. On the perimeter of the trench were
the skeletons of a number of horses. Inside the trench was the embalmed
body of a man and a bronze cauldron filled with burnt marihuana seeds!

Clearing the site further, Rudenko also found some shirts woven from
hemp fibre and some metal censors designed for inhaling smoke which did
not appear to be connected with any religious rite. To Rudenko, the
evidence suggested that inhalation of smoldering marihuana seeds
occurred not only in religious context, but also as an everyday
activity in which Scythian women participated
alongside the men.

The Encyclopedia Brittanica describes the cauldrons found at these
Scythian burial sites as follows:

These cauldrons varied in size from quite small examples to others
weighing as much as 75 pounds. An overwhelming majority have a solid
base, shaped like a truncated cone, around which the fire was heaped.
The upper section is a hemispherical bowl... with handles (shaped like
animals) fixed to the rim opposite each other... at Pazyryk, small
cauldrons filled with stones and hemp seeds were found standing beneath
leather or felt tentlets with three or six supports.

It is known that sacrifices took place with the death of a Scythian
king, as the physical evidence collected by archeologists can attest
to. For 40 days after the death of a king, the mourners would travel
the country conducting the king's dead body through the lands he had
ruled in life.
After this the body was taken to a tomb for burial, where a massive
sacrifice took place, not only of horses, but of humans as well. The
king's wives, cupbearers and principal servants were destined to join
him, willingly or not, in the afterworld.

The Great Goddess

Two extraordinary rugs were also found in the frozen Scythian tombs.
One rug had a border frieze with a repeated composition of a horseman
approaching the great goddess Tabiti-Hestia, the patroness of fire and
beasts. She is depicted as holding the "Tree of Life" in one hand and
raising the other in welcome.

Tabiti-Hestia is the only deity who figures in Scythian art.
Considering the barbaric nature of these people it is interesting that
she is a female, but perhaps really not all that surprising, as many of
the peaceful goddesses became more fierce in the transition from
matriarchy to
patriarchy.

In The Woman's Book of Myths and Secrets, Barbara Walker writes about
the Scythian religion.

The only deity shown in Scythian art was the Great Goddess, whom the
Greeks called Artemis, or Hestia or Gaea (The Earth)... Scythians were
governed by Priestess-Queens, usually buried alone
in richly furnished Kurgans (queen graves)...

The moon-sickle used in mythical castrations of God was a Scythian
weapon. A long-handled form therefore came to be called a scythe, and
was assigned to the Grim Reaper, who was originally
Rhea Kronia [the old crone] in the guise of Mother Time, or Death- the
Earth who devoured her own children. Scythian women apparently used
such weapons in battle as well as religious ceremonies and agriculture.

The Scythian Queens

One thing that differentiates the tombs of royal Scythian queens from
that of the kings is the complete lack of brutal sacrifices.

In the 1994 November issue of High Times, staff reporter Bill Weinberg
reported on a more recent Scythian discovery:

The newest find is from the remote Altai mountains of Siberia-
specifically, from the archeological dig at Ukok, near where the
borders of Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan meet. Russian
scientists found the 2,000-year-old mummified remains of a Scythian
queen elegantly laid out in white silk alongside horse harnesses, a
mirror, dishes- and a small ceremonial container of cannabis. The July
13 New York Times report on the find says archeologists believe
Scythian pot "was smoked for pleasure and used in pagan rituals..."

The Enigmatic Enaries

Cannabis was not only used by the Scythians for relaxation and
ceremonies for the dead. These ancient nomads had a class of
shaman-magicians called the Enaries. These were ancient transvestites
who uttered prophecies in high pitched voices. This at first sounds
bizarre, but was actually a very common trait among shamans world wide.
The Scythians believed that these people, who had characteristics of
both sexes, were somehow also living in both worlds, and could travel
between the two.

The Thracians

Of the groups directly influenced by the Scythian use of cannabis,
probably the most notable would be the red-haired, fair-skinned
Thracians. A Greek speaking nomadic tribe, the history of the Thracians
is closely tied to that of the Scythians, so that at times the two
groups would seem inseparable.

Herodotus wrote of the Thracian's ability at working hemp fibres, and
claimed that their clothes "were so like linen that none but a very
experienced person could tell whether they were of hemp or flax; one
who had never seen hemp would certainly suppose them to be linen."

Like the Scythian shamans, the Thracians used cannabis in a similar
manner. Dr Sumach explains in A Treasury of Hashish that:

The sorcerers of these Thracian tribes were known to have burned female
cannabis flowers (and other psychoactive plants) as a mystical incense
to induce trances. Their special talents were
attributed to the "magical heat" produced from burning the cannabis and
other herbs, believing that the plants dissolved in the flames, then
reassembled themselves inside the person who inhaled the vapors.

Dionysus a Doper?

The majority of scholars are in agreement that Dionysus, the famous
Greek God of Intoxication, was originally a Thracian god. Mircea
Eliade, probably recognized as the foremost authority on the history of
religion, has commented on the Thracian cult of Dionysus, and further
he has connected this worship with the use of cannabis:

Prophecy in Thrace was connected with the cult of Dionysus. A certain
tribe managed the oracle of Dionysus, the temple was on a high
mountain, and the prophetess predicted the future in 'ecstacy', like
the Pythia at Delphi.

Ecstatic experiences strengthened the conviction that the soul is not
only autonomous, but that it is capable of union mystica with the
divinity. The separation of soul from body, determined by
ecstacy, revealed on the one hand the fundamental duality of man, on
the other, the possibility of a purely spiritual post-experience, the
consequence of 'divinization'. Ecstacy could ...be brought on by
certain dried herbs or by asceticism.

In a foot note to dried herbs, Eliade commented on the use of "Hemp
seeds among the Thracians... and among the Scythians", and refers to
some of the ancient shamans as "those who walk in smoke" or Kapnobatai.
The Kapnobatai would be dancers and Shamans who used the smoke of hemp
to bring ecstatic trances.

The messages from the other world brought back by these ancient Shamans
was taken as authoritative advice by the ancient chieftains and their
tribes. In this sense, the Shamans acted as the conscience or mind of
the whole group.

Mellowing with Time

It could well be that in later times the cannabis smoke had somewhat
mellowed the Scythians, and their spiritual leaders directed them
towards becoming a more civilized people. The ancient Greek historian
Ephorus wrote in the fourth century BC that the Scythians 'feed on
mares milk and excel all men in justice'. His comments were followed in
the first century BC by Strabo, who wrote that 'we regard the Scythians
as the most just of men and the least prone to mischief, as also far
more frugal and independent of others than we are.'

*************************************************************

Articles & sources:
The Scythians High Plains Drifters by Chris Bennet
http://www.cannabisculture.com/backissues/jul95/scythians.html
When Smoke Gets in My Eye
http://www.cannabisculture.com/backissues/apr95/smoke_in_my_i.html
Cannabis and the Old Testament
http://www.cannabisculture.com/backissues/mayjune96/kanehbosm.html
Vision of a Sacred Tree
http://www.cannabisculture.com/backissues/fall95/split.html
Christ and Cannabis, Jesus Used Cannabis
http://www.cannabisculture.com/magazine/cc11/christ.html

Cannabis Culture Archives: Sacrament
http://www.cannabisculture.com/library/dbarticles.cgi?head=SACRAMENT
Alter-Nativity
http://boards.marihemp.com/boards/politics/media/39/39261.gif
JC/DC
http://boards.marihemp.com/boards/politics/media/40/40295.gif
Sacramental Cannabis
http://www.angelfire.com/ca7/ddc/Sacramental.html

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