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Cannabis Sacrament Minister
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 19, 2006 10:07 pm    Post subject: The FDA's Marijuana Problem Reply with quote

Hello all,

Just read this and thought it was a good share...

Quote:
The FDA's Marijuana Problem
By Charles L. Hooper : BIO| 18 Aug 2006

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has a marijuana problem. On April 20 of this year, the FDA rejected marijuana for medical uses. The FDA said, "no sound scientific studies supported medical use of marijuana for treatment in the United States, and no animal or human data supported the safety or efficacy of marijuana for general medical use."

This conclusion contradicts a lot of other scientific research and expert conclusions, including that of the National Academy of Sciences and the FDA itself. In 1985, the FDA was so convinced of marijuana's medical benefits that it approved Marinol and Cesamet, both synthetic versions of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active ingredient in marijuana.

Here's what the FDA has to say about Marinol. "MARINOL® (Dronabinol) Capsules is indicated for the treatment of: (1) anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS; and (2) nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patents who have failed to respond adequately to conventional antiemetic treatments."

The FDA obviously thinks that Marinol and Cesamet are safe and efficacious drugs or else it wouldn't have approved them. If the synthetic versions are so good, why hasn't the FDA embraced the natural version? After all, in the Marinol statements above, the FDA is basically agreeing with marijuana advocates.

Two reasons that might come to mind are dosing and delivery mechanism. Although it may seem that an inability to pin down the ideal dose is a problem, the FDA is fully aware that the gold standard of analgesia in hospitals is patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), in which the patient pushes a button as often as desired to get I.V. doses of morphine. In other words, there is no one-size-fits-all dose with PCA. Empirical evidence shows that PCA produces better pain control with less morphine consumed. Marijuana can be used in much the same way as PCA.

The delivery mechanism of marijuana is usually smoke, which can irritate soft tissues and perhaps precipitate cancer. While certainly a problem, I estimate that marijuana smokers consume about one-percent as much per day as do tobacco smokers. Marijuana smokers take a few puffs ("hits") while tobacco smokers may smoke 20 or 40 entire cigarettes per day. Also, many AIDS and chemotherapy patients will be on short-term therapy or won't live long enough to worry about marijuana-induced lung cancer. Many of them would love to live long enough to have such a problem.

Look at the FDA's statements critically. The FDA isn't saying that marijuana doesn't have health benefits; it's saying that no good studies exist to prove that conclusion. In 2004, the FDA stated, "FDA will continue to be receptive to sound, scientifically based research into the medicinal uses of botanical marijuana and other cannabinoids." The key term is "sound research." The FDA recognizes only medicines that have gone through its long, expensive, and exhaustive investigational new drug (IND) application process -- its idea of "sound research."

The FDA is blind to anything that hasn't been through its process. What's worse, marijuana is highly unlikely ever to clear such hurdles. Why? The FDA requires controlled and consistent production batches and it wants to inspect each manufacturing facility. This would be very difficult for a dried weed that is grown in thousands of different places under thousands of different conditions. The FDA also requires placebo-controlled clinical trials with thousands or tens of thousands of patients. What placebo could possibly be used? I doubt that any other safe and medically inactive plant would smell and taste like smoked marijuana. Last, these clinical trials, I estimate, would cost tens if not hundreds of millions of dollars. Who would pay for them? Not the FDA. Not drug companies. Not self-medicating AIDS and cancer patients.

Drugs like marijuana almost certainly do have some health benefits for certain patients. But to put marijuana through the IND process would involve paying for clinical trials, manufacturing facilities, data analysis, legal fees, administrative staff, and FDA face-time, which are all private costs that someone must bear. Marinol's and Cesamet's manufacturers were willing to bear these costs due to the prospect of profits that accrue to the patent holder. For a widespread weed that's been around for millennia, how would anyone garner and enforce such patent protection?

Some say this is a weakness of the private enterprise system. The proponents of government spending on medical research use cases like this as an argument for the role of government. They shouldn't be too optimistic about their solution because that's what we have right now and it has failed miserably. Why? Certain parts of the federal government haven't allowed this scientific process to happen. Remember that, above all else, the government is a political organization and the U.S. government is fighting a war against the production, sale, and usage of marijuana.

The federal government maintains marijuana's status as a Schedule I controlled substance, keeping company with infamous drugs like heroin and PCP. A Schedule I drug is defined as having a very high potential for abuse, no accepted medical use in the United States, and a lack of accepted safety data for use under medical supervision. Interestingly, Marinol is rated as only Schedule III (less dangerous), just like, for example, Tylenol with Codeine.

Just recently, the FDA has landed in more hot water over its marijuana ruling. In 2000, Congress passed what is known as the Data Quality Act to help ensure that regulations are based on solid science. The two-paragraph Data Quality Act wasn't written by a member of Congress, but by James J. Tozzi, and included in a longer appropriations bill. Now Tozzi, who is founder of the Center for Regulatory Effectiveness, is suing the government because the FDA's marijuana ruling has ignored data showing that marijuana is helpful to some patients.

Should we pity the FDA? In some ways, yes, we should. The FDA behaves as a bureaucratic scientist. The FDA will always to be too slow and conservative and require too much data.

I am happy that there are such careful and plodding people in the world. I am not happy that they have the power to prohibit drugs like marijuana. In some cases, like this one, the FDA is the wrong tool for the job. Americans shouldn't rely on the FDA to control widely used and naturally occurring botanicals such as marijuana. The FDA is simply unable to effectively assess the medical value of natural plants like marijuana in any reasonable timeframe. AIDS and cancer are deadly serious diseases and the FDA's approach is fatally flawed. AIDS and cancer patients deserve a better path to useful medicines and than through the FDA's benediction.

Charles L. Hooper is president of Objective Insights, a company that consults for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. He is a visiting fellow with the Hoover Institution and coauthor of Making Great Decisions in Business and Life (Chicago Park Press, 2006).


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DdC
Cannabis Sacrament Minister
Cannabis Sacrament Minister


Joined: 29 Dec 2003
Posts: 451
Location: Santa Cruz Cannafornia

PostPosted: Mon Aug 21, 2006 12:48 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The FDA's Marijuana Problem is the I.O.M. Report. DEAth SNAKE OIL TARGET's AMERICA's Educational Museums. Selling pseudo science and drug war horror stories. Building more cages to put all the dissidents. Target DEAth Merchants! Boycotting these modern IG Farben's, at least won't keep funding 'GOP evil doers".

CANNABIS IS MEDICINE, documented for thousands of years, though maybe not in Busheney legalese, like Clinton Not having "sexual relations", since BJ's are classed as illegal tools of the devil.

The Food and Drugs Puppet's work for Monsanto. The DEAth grants permission to who studies Ganja. And then gives them schwag to use, without deviation. They haven't given any to the FDA, or the nutritious seeds of it's cousin hemp. So they may not have "seen" any medicinal documentation. Legasleasily at least.

Revolving Doors... Monsanto and government regulatory agencies taking care of the business put on the people.

Spontaneous Abortionists, glyphosate, atrazine, carbaryl, and 2,4-D
Act's of gawd. Somehow different than clinics...

Mon$anto'$ WoD on Ditchweed. More DEAth bait and switch. Keeping hemp off the commodities market, using it for statistics. To show soccer moms their DARE checks are well spent, keeping the kids clothing from soft, stronger fiber.

Cliarance & Conflicts of Ignorance are many. Monsanto "Hatchet" lawyer, gutting pollution laws. Frothing and fuming over clean air and water. Hating the forests and wetlands and wildlife. Afraid of not killing the full bag limit. Or getting a load of buckshot in the face, caused by slow ducking. Spreading DEAth poisons in the name of the lard. Franken fuds get fastracked, while hemp remains a non psychoactive schedule#1 narcotic.

FDA's Weed War... profits continue... Hiding heads in the sand and away from the Patients Out Of Time. Rolled joints sent to a handful of citizens left from the IND program Bush 1 killed when AIDs patients started finding relief. Maybe the FDA's phone's out of order. Though the supremes couldn't find it either. Maybe they're like hermits?

FDA-Approved Medical Marijuana Research Blocked. Oh yea, ah, they must a forgot...
Cannabis Therapeutics... Seems the cat is way out of the bag and these insane money grubbers just can't let go of just say no.

Endocannabinoid System Controls Key Circuits... Along with clean air and water, this System must be kept polluted with legal booze and white powders. Herd mentalities are important for the machine to keep working. How many censored medical schools have taught doctors and nurses about the Endocannabinoid System? Not many I've spoken with. Authorized ignorance, churning out obedient high priced pill pushers, thinking discouraged, it causes confusion. How many young ladies sitting in Dr's waiting rooms work for Pharmaceuticals? Slipping them "free samples" to try on the HMO guinea piglets.

Not Too Excited? Thank Your Endocannabinoids... The Stoners Will Survive... Ganja used by Israel to treat trauma and nerve gas damage. Not good enough for our troops?

Time Magazine Praises Medical Cannabis As "Legitimate", guess the FDA must not have a subscription. Or have they read Marijuana and Medicine, The Elixir of Life, May Spur New Brain Cells. May Halt Alzheimer's Progression? This isn't all that new.
Nancy just said NO for Ronnie. The message to the kids? Zero Tolerance, Kill them ALL!

Brain Damage and Dead Monkeys by Heath. It let Ronnie scare the people away from their own common sense. To bring in expensive irrelevant government pisstasting,
onto the labor bargaining table. Hiding research or out right DEAth lies obedience. Pushing half truth's and junk theories as factual physics. Fastracking Marinol or Aspartame for pure political profit. The FDA aids the terrorists. Degenerated below the depth of ineptness required to take anything they say as truth or true science.

Degenerating corporate obstacles are one of Busheney Inc Merit Badges. EPA or OSHA's no different. Null and Void, expired after Nov. 2000. The USDA prime grade A Mickey D factory farms. Plastic nuggets of McKFC, fatter than the McCow herds they grind all together for burgers. Fossil Fools still stalling efforts to treat global warming. Greedy lil deadly fools stealing from the next 7 generations. The AMA has been replaced with three piece geeks from the Petro-Chemical subsidiaries. Homeyland Insurance Agency and its lackey political placements sounding timely alerts before elections.

$40 billion overnight to the airlines hit on 9-11. Katrina victims still wondering around waiting for cleanup and blundering FEMA reps. The Czar, Pee ditto Walters and his Tandy DEAth Troop, the FBI and the miscellaneous Just Us system copshops headed by PatRiot Axman Lawyer General, Speedy Gonzales.

Traffic jams still profit Exxonmobil Chevron Condie and the taxman. Disease brings in billions, why prevent or cure it? Why legalize Ganja when crime pays so well? With such willing sheople bleating TV scripted Fauxnews rumors in 3 part harmony. Rushing off to Wallmart is the Busheney answer to fighting Osama!

Peace, Love and Liberty or the Merchants of DEAth
One or the Other, USA or Fascism...
DdC

The FDA's Marijuana Problem By Charles L. Hooper
CN Source: TCS Daily August 17, 2006 Washington, DC

Contact: info@tcsdaily.com * Website

IOM Report

FDA Issues Report for Political Purposes

The FDA's Reefer Madness

Follow The Drug War Money

Industry Funded Front Organizations



The Drug War And Genetically Modified Foods Closely Related

POLICING FOR PROFIT: THE DRUG WAR'S HIDDEN ECONOMIC AGENDA

During the 25 years of its existence, the "War on Drugs" has transformed the criminal justice system, to the point where the imperatives of drug law enforcement now drive many of the broader legislative, law enforcement, and corrections policies in counterproductive ways.

One significant impetus for this transformation has been the enactment of forfeiture laws which allow law enforcement agencies to keep the lion's share of the drug-related assets they seize.

Another has been the federal law enforcement aid program, revised a decade ago to focus on assisting state anti-drug efforts. Collectively these financial incentives have left many law enforcement agencies dependent on drug law enforcement to meet their budgetary requirements, at the expense of alternative goals such as the investigation and prosecution of non-drug crimes, crime prevention strategies, and drug education and treatment.

In this article we present a legal and empirical analysis of these laws and their consequences. In so doing, we seek to explain why the drug war continues with such heavy emphasis on law enforcement and incarceration, and show the way to more rational policies.



DEA SNAKE OIL
Don't ever suggest that federal bureaucrats are not smart. Take, for instance, the DEA, the federal agency that has the responsibility of waging the war on drugs, a war that has obviously failed to achieve its objective after 30 years of warfare, not to mention all the collateral violence that the drug war has spawned.

Amidst growing discussion and debate in the mainstream media on the libertarian idea of ending the war on drugs by legalizing drugs, guess what the DEA is using as a way to distract people's attention away from that solution.

Yes, you guessed it! The DEA is employing the magic word, the word that gets everyone's knees a-knockin' - the word that causes them to pull the duct tape out and start sealing their windows - the word that induces them to beg the government to "temporarily" take away their freedoms.

Yes, the DEA is saying that the drug war is necessary because of ... ( drum roll ) ... terrorism!

Much like the snake-oil salesmen of old, the DEA is touring the country with a traveling exhibit in which a post-9/11 President Bush waving a flag is juxtaposed with an African-American woman lying in bed next to her baby as she smokes crack cocaine. There are also photos of the noted terrorist Osama bin Laden on the walls of the exhibit alongside noted drug dealer Pablo Escobar.



CANNABIS IS MEDICINE

I concur with Bruce Rittenhouse that all too often the media does not take the issue of medicinal cannabis seriously.  Given the current issue before the Santa Barbara City Council ordinance committee, the issue is timely, educational and newsworthy.

By any definition, cannabis is a medication. 

This has been confirmed in numerous ways by the American public by the 56 percent of the California electorate that approved Proposition 215 in 1996, by the almost 70 percent of the citizens of the city of Santa Barbara that favored medicinal cannabis, and by 69 percent of Americans polled by ABC news in 1997 that favored legalizing the medical use of cannabis.

Further support is demonstrated by the majority of voters in all eight states that voted for Prop.  215-like initiatives, as well as the District of Columbia, that have voted on this issue in the past few years;..

the 36 state legislatures that have endorsed medical cannabis since 1976;...

the 54 percent of oncologists that say they would or have recommended cannabis to their cancer patients;..

a majority of infectious disease doctors that treat AIDS;..

the U.S.  government, that provides cannabis legally to eight patients;..

England, that has licensed Dr.  Geoffrey Guy to produce several different chemical extracts of cannabis...

and the FDA in the form of Marinol, a Schedule III drug, which is THC available in prescription pill form.

And lastly, over 4000 years of historical medicinal use of cannabis, including documented medicinal use in the United States since 1839.



Monsanto employees and government regulatory agencies employees...
are the same people!

Revolving Doors: Monsanto and the Regulators

Wallstreet's Spontaneous Abortionists

The timing and types of pesticide exposures are critical determinants of reproductive outcomes, according to a recently published study by Canadian researchers. The study examined pesticide exposures based on recall by farm families and reported histories of spontaneous abortions among women living on the farms. The study found strong evidence that a woman’s exposure to pesticides in the three months prior to conception or in the month of conception significantly increased her risk of spontaneous abortion.

Preconception exposure to the pesticides glyphosate, atrazine, carbaryl, and 2,4-D increased relative risk of spontaneous abortion by 20-40%. Risks were even higher for women exposed to pesticides at age 35 or older and for women exposed to pesticide mixtures.

DEAth TARGET AMERICA

Target DEAth Merchants

Bushit Rumcheney Cocktail:Fascist Nationalism and MKULTRA

Monsanto's War on Ditchweed

The DEA no longer releases figures for ditchweed seizures, but in his book, "Marijuana in the Third World: Appalachia, USA," University of Kentucky sociologist Richard Clayton crunched official numbers from the late 1980s and early 1990s. "It is important to examine carefully how much of the marijuana eradicated in the US is essentially worthless ditchweed," wrote Clayton. "The answer is 95%."

Clayton's research is not the only to pan the DEA's eradication efforts, nor the most damning. A 1998 report by the Vermont State Auditor placed the proportion of ditchweed in DEA's marijuana eradication program even higher, at 99.28%

Mansonto, Cliarance & Conflicts of Ignorance...

Monsanto's Cliarence

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DdC
Cannabis Sacrament Minister
Cannabis Sacrament Minister


Joined: 29 Dec 2003
Posts: 451
Location: Santa Cruz Cannafornia

PostPosted: Mon Aug 21, 2006 12:50 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

If the personal freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution
inhibit the government's ability to govern the people,
we should look to limit those guarantees.
President Bill Clinton, August 12, 1993

Pesticidal Killers

Poison Inc v Hemp



Weed Watch: Blowing Bad Smoke

FDA's Weed War

Pot's Catch-22 On The Docket

Patients Out Of Time - Cannabis As Medicine!

Fish Pond Plantation,
1472 Fish Pond Road,
Howardsville, VA 24562
TEL (804) 263-4484
FAX (804) 263-6753

email: Patients@MedicalCannabis.com

Press Release: Patients Out Of Time

Patients Out Of Time  
CN Source: Patients Out Of Time  August 09, 1999

Patients Out of Time is pleased to announce that the Public Health Association of Wisconsin has issued a statement positive about the therapeutic use of Cannabis for the sick and dying.

This state organization, demonstrating patient advocacy principles follows the lead of the oldest and largest health care organization in the U.S., The American Public Health Association.

The national organization stated that, " Realizing that thousands of patients not helped by conventional medications and treatments may find relief from their suffering with the use of marijuana if their primary care providers were to prescribe this medicine …

(the APHA) urges the Administration and Congress to move expeditiously to make Cannabis available as a legal medicine where shown to be safe and effective and to immediately allow access to therapeutic cannabis through the Investigational New Drug Program."

The Politics of Pot

Souder Orders to FDA Backfiring!



Support the Drug-Addicted Troops
Tony Newman, AlterNet. August 8, 2005.
War experiences can lead to self-medication and drug addiction. Supporting the troops means providing proper mental health care and treatment programs when they come home.
Sam Stone: Collateral Damage



FDA-Approved Medical Marijuana Research Blocked 12/15/01

On December 6, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) prevented a privately funded, FDA approved medical marijuana study from taking place by refusing to allow the researcher to purchase marijuana from a legal source.

Chat With Ethan Russo M.D.

Dr. Russo is the medical advisor for Cannabis Health magazine
editor of The Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics
and was a Primary Investigator for the study Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug (IND) Program : An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis

Critique of HHS' guidelines

A coalition of doctors, patients, medical groups, members of Congress, and other concerned citizens delivered a statement to HHS Secretary Donna Shalala, arguing that "many of the new guidelines would still be too cumbersome to enable research to move forward as expeditiously as possible."



Endocannabinoid System Controls Key Circuits
CN Source: Medical Research News-Medical.Net August 16, 2006 Germany 

-- The same brain machinery that responds to the active substance in marijuana provides a central "on-demand" protection against seizures, researchers have found. They said their discoveries suggest that the "endocannabinoid" system might constitute a prime target for drugs against seizures of epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases.

The findings were published by Beat Lutz and Giovanni Marsicano, of Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry and Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, and colleagues in the August 17, 2006, issue of the journal Neuron, published by Cell Press.

The endocannabinoid system--which includes the receptors, the natural cannabinoid compounds that trigger them, as well as the machinery for regulating the process--was already known to modulate the excitation of neuronal transmission, noted the researchers. However, it had not been established that such modulation might affect neurons in the hippocampus responsible for the "excitotoxicity" that underlies the uncontrolled activity of seizures.

Thus, Lutz, Marsicano, and his colleagues used genetic techniques to pinpoint the role of the endocannabinoid system on these neurons and on seizure activity. They used mice as their animal model and induced seizures in these mice with the chemical kainic acid (KA).

In particular, they wanted to explore the role played by the endocannabinoid system in hippocampal neurons that are responsive to the neurotransmitter glutamine. These neurons are known to play a central role in seizure activity. The endocannabinoid regulatory system is also active in another type of neuron triggered by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Thus, the researchers conducted experiments in which they genetically knocked out the endocannabinoid receptor CB1 and analyzed the effects on seizure sensitivity. They found that, indeed, when they knocked out CB1 in glutamatergic, but not GABAergic neurons, the chemically induced seizures increased in the mice. In fact, their experiments all but ruled out the role of GABAergic neurons in the seizure-protection function, they concluded.

"Altogether, these results confirm that physiological endocannabinoid-dependent control of GABAergic transmission depends on intact CB1 signaling in GABAergic interneurons and suggest that the endocannabinoid system does not influence GABAergic transmission during the development of KA-induced seizures," they concluded. "Therefore, direct modulation of glutamatergic transmission by CB1 receptors expressed on cortical glutamatergic neurons appears to be the major mechanism of endocannabinoid-mediated protection against KA-induced seizures."

Furthermore, the researchers' experiments established that endocannabinoid receptors were also present in the same glutamatergic neurons in areas of the hippocampus known to be central to seizure generation. The researchers wrote that this finding "represents a novel step in understanding the progression of acute excitotoxic seizures and the development of epileptic states."

And significantly, when the researchers used a targeted virus to knock out the CB1 gene for the endocannabinoid receptor specifically in the glutamatergic neurons of the hippocampus, the mice also showed strong worsening of chemically induced seizures in comparison to mice still expressing CB1.

"Altogether, these observations support a hypothetical scenario in which acute KA-induced excitotoxic seizures would activate the endocannabinoid system in respect to its ability to inhibit only 'harmful' glutamatergic transmission, but not 'protective' GABAergic release," concluded Lutz, Marsicano, and colleagues.

"In conclusion, our study reveals a mechanism through which the endocannabinoid system is able to provide on-demand protection against acute behavioral seizures. CB1 expression on hippocampal glutamatergic circuits accounts for this protection and might represent a suitable target for the treatment of neurological disorders associated with excessive neuronal excitation," they wrote.

Complete Title: The Endocannabinoid System Controls Key Epileptogenic Circuits In The Hippocampus

Contact: editorial@news-medical.net * URL * Website
CannabisNews Medical Marijuana Archives

In praise of cannabis by RUTH TOLEDANO

According to archaeologists, evidence exists proving that hemp has been cultivated since about 8,000 BC: it was used for human consumption, and for making fabrics. About 2700 BC we find the first written reference to the use of cannabis in the work of Shen Nung, the father of Chinese medicine.



Psychoactive plants have had an extremely important position in most societies. Comsumption of such plants tens or even hundreds of thousands of years ago may have been responsible for generating much of the mythology and religion, inded,much of the very fabric of culture which so strikingly distinguishes man from even the most advance of the great apes.

Could it be that these plants provided sparks to kindle the flame of intellect which now shines so brightly it threatens to destroy the world?

Countless millions of times priests, elders and sages comsumed potent preparations of psychoacitive plants in order to attune themselves to nature and act in accordane with natural or divine law.

This is still done in the many of the less technologically evolved societies.

The almost universal occurrence of such pratices ( or their substitutes such as meditation, yoga, trance, hypnosis) testifies to their effectiveness.

Western Europe, however was largely devoid of such plants and consequently of traditions for using them to put oneself in harmony with the surroundings.

American traditions have mostly evolved from those of Western Europe and this is one reason for the considerable resistance to the use of psychedelic drugs

Endocannabinoid-Mediated Metaplasticity in the Hip...

Not Too Excited? Thank Your Endocannabinoids...

Endocannabinoids Control the Induction of Cerebell...

The Stoners Will Survive



Marijuana and Medicine October 17, 2005
(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- The looming question of the effect of marijuana on the brain has been answered. According to Canadian researchers, cannabis promotes neurogenesis -- the generation of new neurons in the brain -- leading to anti-anxiety and anti-depressant type effects.

For centuries, marijuana has evoked constant criticism and interest. While it appeared to have some benefits in the medical world, the illicit drug is also used to create recreational highs.

Researchers from the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada, tested increased use of the potent synthetic cannabinoid HU210 in adult rats. One month after chronic HU210 treatment, the rats displayed new neuron generation in the brain. The HU210 had also reduced measures of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the rats.

Previous studies show chronic administration of other illicit drugs such as opiates, alcohol, nicotine and cocaine suppress neuron generation. Researchers therefore believe marijuana may be the only drug that enhances adult neurogenesis and can modify behavior.

This article was reported by Ivanhoe.com who offers Medical Alerts by e-mail every day of the week.

To subscribe, go to ivanhoe.com/newsalert
SOURCE: The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2005;115:11



Marijuana May Live Up To Be The Elixir of Life By Ravi Chopra
CN Source: Earthtimes.org  October 15, 2005

A study by University of Saskatchewan researchers suggests beneficial aspects of smoking marijuana at least among rats, who appear to have sprouted new brain cells and besides benefiting from reduced depression and anxiety. The study's results appearing in the 'Journal of Clinical Investigation' have actually given a fillip to the traditional and mythological view that associates the addictive weed in some ways with immortality.

Study Turns Pot Wisdom on Head

Cannabis Acts as Antidepressant

Marijuana May Spur New Brain Cells



A Molecular Link between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology

Cannabinoid May Halt Alzheimer's Progression, Study Says
CN Source: NORML August 17, 2006 La Jolla, CA, USA  

THC inhibits the formation of amyloid plaque, the primary marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), far more effectively than approved medications, according to preclinical data to be published in the journal Molecular Pharmaceutics.

Investigators at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California reported that THC inhibits the enzyme responsible for the aggregation of amyloid plaque in a manner "considerably superior" to approved Alzheimer's drugs such as donepezil and tacrine.

"Our results provide a mechanism whereby the THC molecule can directly impact Alzheimer's disease pathology," researchers concluded. "THC and its analogues may provide an improved therapeutic [option] for Alzheimer's disease [by]... simultaneously treating both the symptoms and the progression of [the] disease."
Previous studies have shown cannabinoids to possess anti oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, both of which may play a role in moderating Alzheimer's.

Last year, investigators at Madrid's Complutense University and the Cajal Institute in Spain reported that the intracerebroventricular administration of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 prevented cognitive impairment and decreased neurotoxicity in rats. Other cannabinoids were also found to reduce the inflammation associated with Alzheimer's disease in human brain tissue in culture.

"Our results indicate that... cannabinoids succeed in preventing the neurodegenerative process occurring in the disease," investigators concluded.

Over 4.5 million Americans are estimated to be afflicted with Alzheimer's disease. That figure is expected to triple over the next 50 years.

Previous human trials of synthetic THC (Marinol) and Alzheimer's found that administration of the drug reduced agitation and stimulated weight gain in patients suffering from the disease.

For more information, please contact Paul Armentano, NORML Senior Policy Analyst, at (202) 483-5500. Full text of the study, "A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer's disease pathology," is available online at: pubs.acs.org

Additional information on cannabinoids and neurodegenerative disorders
is available online at: norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6812 * DL

Time Magazine Praises Medical Cannabis As "Legitimate"
NORML December 8, 2005 Washington, DC, USA

Time also cited a previous preclinical trial published in the Journal of Neuroscience that found that the administration of synthetic cannabinoids in both animals and in human brain tissue prevented the neurodegenerative decline associated with Alzheimer's disease.



Dr. Heath/Tulane Study, 1974
The Hype: Brain Damage and Dead Monkeys (Jack Herer)

In 1974, California Governor Ronald Reagan was asked about decriminalizing marijuana. After producing the Heath/Tulane University study, the so-called "Great Communicator" proclaimed, "The most reliable scientific sources say permanent brain damage is one of the inevitable results of the use of marijuana."
(L.A. Times)

The monkeys were suffocating! Three to five minutes of oxygen deprivation causes brain damage "dead brain cells." (Red Cross Lifesaving and Water Safety Manual) With the concentration of smoke used, the monkeys were a bit like a person running the engine of a car in a locked garage for 5, 10, 15 minutes at a time every day!

The Heath Monkey study was actually a study in animal asphyxiation and carbon monoxide poisoning.

Government exists to protect us from each other.
Where government has gone beyond its limits is in deciding to protect us from ourselves.
-- Ronald Reagan, The New York Times, April 13, 1980



F.D.A. misses Medical Benefit From Marijuana
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