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goobud
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PostPosted: Thu Jan 25, 2007 8:41 pm    Post subject: Holy Anointing Oil - Wikipedia Reply with quote

Quote:
The holy anointing oil described in Exodus 30:22-25 was created from 500 shekels (about 6 kg) of myrrh, half as much (about 3 kg) of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels (about 3 kg) of fragrant cane (kanabos, variously translated as calamus or cannabis), 500 shekels (about 6kg) of cassia, and a hin (about 4 L) of olive oil.

Since the amount of spices would clearly overwhelm the olive oil, it is thought that these measures were of the original spices that were then distilled down, by "the art of the apothecary", to essential oils. Because there is no record of how the Jews rendered oil from their spices, it is unclear as to how much oil would have made up the final mixture.

The holiness of the oil was protected by the ceremonial law, which prohibited its use in anything but the rites of the temple, on threat of banishment from among the Jewish people. Goobud says - (When will these people/race ever get right/be cool in this world, threats/bans - bunk, deport 'em back to hell).



Seem to notice people fight over "it is" and "it is not". People not used to winding up in a spectrum of understanding.

Is it calamus or is it cannabis (Kane Bosm Fragrant Cane, etc.)

Notice how Cinnimon and Cassia are varients of the same "Cinnimon", one is (Cinnamomum verum, synonym C. zeylanicum) - Cinnimon and the other Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym C. cassia), also called Chinese cinnamon.


Turn this kaleidoscope of translation go-round and see maybe that the real recipie may be reunderstandable.

If two cinnimons, why not two fragrant canes.

Olive Oil (other cold pressed in emergency)

Myrrh Commiphora myrrha

Cinnamomum verum
Cinnamomum aromaticum - Cassia

Calamus or Common Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus)
fragrant cane (kanabos, variously translated as calamus or cannabis)

I know my scientific and shaministic knomwldege is more preschool and my presentation choppy but I hope this presentation could get a comment after an expert reflects more on it, the real recipie and what happened during translation and how many layers of overlapping errors are there now.

I could also ask, why not two oils then or if seven is such a Holy number, where is the seventh ingrediant.

Well that is all for now. Going to see the answer to Flax and oil other where in this forum.
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goobud
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 27, 2007 9:40 am    Post subject: Literial vs. Figurative Reply with quote

Bumped into this reference. Surprised how much it layed out relationships. Way better then Wikipedia.

All seem to try suggest they know literaly the translations and recipies of Holy Anointing Oil.

The articles mentions out loud how much figurative thinking is involved.

Quote:
There are multiple recipes in use today and the oil continues to be used in several modern occult traditions, including Thelema and the gnostic church, Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica.


Quote:
Since Cinnamon and Cassia are two species of the same Cinnamomum genus, their doubling up into one name by the medieval author Abraham of Worms is not unexpected. His reasons for doing so may have been prompted by a pious decision to avoid duplicating true Holy Oil, or by a tacit admission that in medieval Europe, it was difficult to obtain Cinnamon and Cassia as separate products.


Quote:
Does Galangal seem a form of Ganja? -goobud


http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Abramelin_oil

Abramelin Oil:

Abramelin oil
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Cite This Source

Abramelin oil, also called Oil of Abramelin, is a ceremonial magical oil blended from aromatic plant materials. Its name came about due to its having been described in a medieval grimoire called The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage written by Abraham of Worms. The recipe is adapted from the Jewish Holy Oil of the Tanakh, which is described in the Book of Exodus attrbuted to Moses.
Abramelin oil experienced new popularity beginning in the 20th century due to several well-known occultists, especially S. L. MacGregor Mathers thanks to his English translation of the book, and Aleister Crowley, who used a similar version of the oil in his system of Magick. There are multiple recipes in use today and the oil continues to be used in several modern occult traditions, including Thelema and the gnostic church, Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica.

Ingredients and methods of preparation
There are, especially among English-speaking occulists, numerous variant forms of Abramelin Oil.

Abramelin Oil
In the original manuscripts, the recipe for Abramelin Oil is as follows:


You shall prepare the sacred oil in this manner: Take of myrrh in tears, one part; of fine cinnamon, two parts; of calamus half a part; and the half of the total weight of these drugs of the best oil olive. The which aromatics you shall mix together according unto the art of the apothecary, and shall make thereof a balsam, the which you shall keep in a glass vial which you shall put within the cupboard (formed by the interior) of the altar.
Here is the recipe for Jewish Holy Oil from the Bible:


Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred [shekels], and of sweet cinnamon half so much, [even] two hundred and fifty [shekels], and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty [shekels], And of cassia five hundred [shekels], after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin: And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compounded after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.
The Bible lists five ingredients: Myrrh, Cinnamon, Cassia, Calamus, and Olive oil.

The four ingedients listed by Abraham of Worms in The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage are Myrrh, Cinnamon, Calamus, and Olive oil.

Since Cinnamon and Cassia are two species of the same Cinnamomum genus, their doubling up into one name by the medieval author Abraham of Worms is not unexpected. His reasons for doing so may have been prompted by a pious decision to avoid duplicating true Holy Oil, or by a tacit admission that in medieval Europe, it was difficult to obtain Cinnamon and Cassia as separate products.

Samuel Mathers' Abramelin Oil
According to the S.L. MacGregor Mathers English translation, which derives from an incomplete French manuscript copy of the book, the recipe is as follows:


You shall prepare the sacred oil in this manner: Take of myrrh in tears, one part; of fine cinnamon, two parts; of galangal half a part; and the half of the total weight of these drugs of the best oil olive. The which aromatics you shall mix together according unto the art of the apothecary, and shall make thereof a balsam, the which you shall keep in a glass vial which you shall put within the cupboard (formed by the interior) of the altar.
The four ingedients listed by Mathers in his translation of The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage are Myrrh, Cinnamon, Galangal, and Olive oil. The word that he translated from the French as "Galangal" is actually the word "Calamus." All of the other extant manuscripts, in German and Aramaic, also list "Calamus" as the ingredient. It is unknown if Mathers' use of Galangal instead of Calamus was intentional or a mistranslation, but it was to result in several notable changes, including symbolism and use.

Macerated Abramelin Oil
A recipe for Abramelin oil based upon the original German, French, or Aramaic texts is as follows:


4 parts Cinnamon bark quills, reduced to powder
2 parts Myrrh resin, finely ground
1 part Calamus chopped root, reduced to powder
half of the foregoing total weight Olive oil
The mixture is macerated for one month, then decanted and bottled for use, producing a fragranced oil suitable for anointing any portion of the body, and will not burn the skin. It may be applied liberally, after the manner of traditional Jewish Holy Oils, such as the one which was poured on Aaron's head until it ran down his beard. It is not, however, made "according unto the art of the apothecary", since it is not distilled after the maceration but decanted into bottles.

Mathers' Macerated Abramelin Oil
Making Abramelin oil according to Mathers' translation requires compounding the oil from raw ingredients. The ratio given in the book is as follows:


4 parts Cinnamon bark quills, reduced to powder
2 parts Myrrh resin tears, finely ground
1 part Galangal sliced root, reduced to powder
half of the foregoing total weight Olive oil
This mixture is macerated for one month, then decanted and bottled for use. The result is a fragranced oil suitable for anointing any portion of the body, and it will not burn the skin.

Crowley's Abramelin Oil made with essential oils
Early in the 20th century, the British occultist Aleister Crowley created his own version of Abramelin Oil, which he called "Oil of Abramelin," and sometimes referred to as the "Holy Oil of Aspiration." It was based on Mathers' substitution of Galangal for Calamus. Crowley also abandoned the book's method of preparation—which specifies blending Myrrh "tears" (resin) and "fine" (finely ground) Cinnamon—instead opting for pouring together distilled essential oils with a small amount of olive oil. His recipe (from his Commentary to Liber Legis ) reads as follows:


8 parts Cinnamon essential oil
4 parts Myrrh essential oil
2 parts Galangal essential oil
7 parts Olive oil
Crowley weighed out his proportions of essential oils according to the recipe specified by Abramelin the Mage for weighing out raw materials. The result is to give the Cinnamon a strong presence, so that when it is placed upon the skin "it should burn and thrill through the body with an intensity as of fire." This formula is unlike the Jewish grimoire recipe and it cannot be used for practices that require the oil to be poured over the head. Rather, Crowley intended it to be applied in small amounts, usually to the top of the head or the forehead, and to be used for anointment of magical equipment as an act of consecration.

Abramelin Oil made with essential oils
A recipe for Abramelin oil using Calamus but also essential oils is as follows:


4 parts Cinnamon essential oil
2 parts Myrrh essential oil
1 part Calamus essential oil
half of the foregoing total weight Olive oil
Since ancient perfumers and apothecaries never compounded their fragrances by mixing essential oils in such large ratio with respect to carrier oils—because the original formula was to be distilled after maceration, not before—it is possible to restore the proportions to something like what they might have been if maceration and distillation had occurred "according to the art of the apothecary":


4 parts Cinnamon essential oil
2 parts Myrrh essential oil
1 part Calamus essential oil
28 parts Olive oil
This is a highly fragranced oil that may be applied to the skin in more liberal amounts; it is a close, modern approximation of the oil described by Abramelin to Abraham of Worms.

Doubly-consecrated Crowley Oil of Abramelin recipe
It is possible to add 1 part of a previously consecrated batch of the Crowley version of Abramelin oil to each new batch. This can be done for magical reasons and does not change the proportions of the ingredients.

Symbolism of the ingredients
Many traditions of magic work with plant materials, and most also assign some symbolic meanings or ascriptions to these ingredients.

In the Jewish tradition, from whence came the original Biblical recipe upon which Abramelin Oil is based, the Olive is a symbol of domestic felicity and stability, Myrrh (which contains opioids) is believed to be sacred to the Lord, Calamus is known for its sweetness and phalliform fruiting body and stands for male sexuality and love, while Cinnamon is favoured for its warming ability.

In hoodoo folk magic, these symbolisms are somewhat changed: Myrrh and Olive remain the same, but Cinnamon is for money and luck, and Calamus is used to sweetly control others. (The Matherian alternative, Galangal, is employed in protective work, especially that involving court cases.)

Crowley also had a symbolic view of the ingredients that he found in the Mathers translation:


This oil is compounded of four substances. The basis of all is the oil of the olive. The olive is, traditionally, the gift of Minerva, the Wisdom of God, the Logos. In this are dissolved three other oils; oil of myrrh, oil of cinnamon, oil of galangal. The Myrrh is attributed to Binah, the Great Mother, who is both the understanding of the Magician and that sorrow and compassion which results from the contemplation of the Universe. The Cinnamon represents Tiphereth, the Sun -- the Son, in whom Glory and Suffering are identical. The Galangal represents both Kether and Malkuth, the First and the Last, the One and the Many, since in this Oil they are One. [...] These oils taken together represent therefore the whole Tree of Life. The ten Sephiroth are blended into the perfect gold.
Abramelin Oil in occult tradition
The original popularity of Abramelin Oil rested on the importance magicians place upon Jewish traditions of Holy Oils and, more recently, upon Mathers' translation of The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage and the resurgence of 20th century occultism, such as found in the works of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and Aleister Crowley, and has since spread into other modern occult traditions.

Because it derives from the formula for Jewish Holy Oil, Abramelin Oil also finds use among Jewish and Christian Kabbalists who are not specifically performing the works described by Abraham of Worms. However, the oil can be used in the course of ritual activities outlined in the book by Abramelin the Mage in order to obtain the outcomes he promised those who successfully applied his system of "Divine Science" and "True Magic", namely, the gifts of flight, treasure-finding, and invisibility, as well as the power to cast effective love spells.

Oil of Abramelin and Thelema
Oil of Abramelin was seen as highly important by Aleister Crowley, the founder of Thelema, and he used his version of it throughout his life. In Crowley's mystical system, the oil came to symbolize the aspiration to what he called the Great Work—"The oil consecrates everything that is touched with it; it is his aspiration; all acts performed in accordance with that are holy."

Crowley went on to say


The Holy Oil is the Aspiration of the Magician; it is that which consecrates him to the performance of the Great Work; and such is its efficacy that it also consecrates all the furniture of the Temple and the instruments thereof. It is also the grace or chrism; for this aspiration is not ambition; it is a quality bestowed from above. For this reason the Magician will anoint first the top of his head before proceeding to consecrate the lower centres in their turn (...) It is the pure light translated into terms of desire. It is not the Will of the Magician, the desire of the lower to reach the higher; but it is that spark of the higher in the Magician which wishes to unite the lower with itself.
This oil is currently used in several ceremonies of the Thelemic church, Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica, including the rites of Baptism, Confirmation, and Ordination. It is also commonly used to consecrate magical implements and temple furniture. The eucharistic host of the Gnostic Mass—called the Cake of Light—includes this oil as an important ingredient.

Effects of Mathers' recipe and Crowley's use of essential oils
Mathers' use of the ingredient galangal instead of calamus and/or Crowley's innovative use of essential oils rather than raw ingredients has resulted in some interesting changes from the original Jewish recipe:


* Scent: The oils of Mathers and Crowley have a different aroma from the Jewish Abramelin oil. The scent of galangal is gingergy and spicy whereas calamus is florally sweet yet a bit yeasty—although the scent of the final oil is strongly cinnamon.

*Symbolism: In Jewish, Greek, and European magical botanic symbolism, the ascription given to sweet flag or calamus is generally that of male sexuality, due to the shape of the plant's fruiting body. Crowley gave the following Qabalistic meaning for galangal: "Galangal represents both Kether and Malkuth, the First and the Last, the One and the Many." Thus Crowley's substitution therefore shifts the symbolism to microcosm/macrocosm unity, which is reflective of Thelema's mystical aim—the union of the adept with the Absolute.

*Skin sensation: The original recipe for Abramelin Oil does not irritate the skin and can be applied according to traditional Jewish and Christian religious and magical practices. Crowley's recipe has a much higher concentration of cinnamon than the original recipe. This results in an oil which can be noticeably hot on the skin and can cause skin rashes if applied too liberally.

*Digestive toxicity: Galangal is edible, calamus is not, being toxic. This is certainly relevant to those who use Crowley's Oil of Abramelin as a core ingredient for the eucharistic Cake of Light, giving it a mild opiated taste (from the myrrh) and a spicy tang (from the cinnamon and the ginger-like galangal). Any use of calamus in such a recipe would render the host inedible.
See also

Holy Guardian Angel
Magick
Mysticism
List of magical terms and traditions

Notes
References

Abraham von Worms, edited by Beecken, Johann Richard. (1957).Die heilige Magie des Abramelin von Abraham. ISBN 3-87702-017-8
Abraham von Worms, edited by Dehn, Georg. Buch Abramelin das ist Die egyptischen großen Offenbarungen. Oder des Abraham von Worms Buch der wahren Praktik in der uralten göttlichen Magie. (Editions Araki, 2001) ISBN 3-936149-00-3
Abraham of Worms, edited by Dehn, Georg. Book of Abramelin: A New Translation. (Nicholas Hays, September 2006) ISBN 0-89254-127-X
Abraham of Worms, translated and edited by Mathers, S.L. MacGregor. The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage. (1897; reprinted by Dover Publications, 1975) ISBN 0-85030-255-2
Abraham of Worms, edited by von Inns, Juerg. Das Buch der wahren Praktik in der goettlichen Magie. Diederichs Gelbe Reihe. (1988).
Crowley, Aleister. Magick: Book 4. 2nd ed. York Beach, Me. : S. Weiser, 1997.
Koenig, Peter R. (1995). Abramelin & Co. Hiram-Edition. ISBN 3-927890-24-3
Tisserand, Robert & Balacs, Tony. (1995). "Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals" ISBN 0-443-05260-3

External links

The Anal-retentive’s Guide to Oil of Abramelin by Frater RIKB
Recipe for Mathers-style Macerated Oil of Abramelin by Alchemy Works
Historical and critical background to the new translation by Georg Dehn, with information about Abraham of Worms
Thelemic Consecration of the Oil, by T. Apiryon
Safety Guidelines for Essential Oils


Quote:
It appears again the only thing consistent through the years is punishment for wanting a gift of creation - why the jews so miserable a lot? Up to today!!! - goobud


Quote:
The holiness of the oil was protected by the ceremonial law, which prohibited its use in anything but the rites of the temple, on threat of banishment from among the Jewish people.


Quote:
Holier then thou ist, from the Temple turds, no class, class system maunufactures and bringers of death in every form known, bad magic mopes. - goobud


http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Holy_anointing_oil

Holy anointing oil
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Cite This Source


The holy anointing oil described in Exodus 30:22-25 was created from 500 shekels (about 6 kg) of myrrh, half as much (about 3 kg) of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels (about 3 kg) of fragrant cane (calamus), 500 shekels (about 6kg) of cassia, and a hin (about 4 L) of olive oil.

Since the amount of spices would clearly overwhelm the olive oil, it is thought that these measures were of the original spices that were then distilled down, by "the art of the apothecary", to essential oils. Because there is no record of how the Jews rendered oil from their spices, it is unclear as to how much oil would have made up the final mixture.

The holiness of the oil was protected by the ceremonial law, which prohibited its use in anything but the rites of the temple, on threat of banishment from among the Jewish people.

See also

Abramelin oil
Anointing
Chrism

http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Spiritual_use_of_cannabis

Spiritual use of cannabis
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Cite This Source


This article is about cannabis used as a drug in a spiritual or religious context.
Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use as a drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BCE, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. In India, it has been used by wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries, and in modern times the Rastafari movement has embraced it. Some historians and etymologists have claimed that cannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews, early Christians and Muslims of the Sufi order.

Jewish and Christian use
According to some scholars, cannabis was an ingredient of holy anointing oil mentioned in various sacred Hebrew texts. The herb of interest is most commonly known as kanah-bosim (קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם) (the singular form of which would be kaneh-bos) which is mentioned several times in the Old Testament as a bartering material, incense, and an ingredient in holy anointing oil used by the high priest of the temple. The Septuagint translates kaneh-bosm as calamus, and this translation has been propagated unchanged to most later translations of the old testament. However, Polish anthropologist Sula Benet published etymological arguments that the Aramaic word for hemp can be read as kannabos and appears to be a cognate to the modern word 'cannabis', with the root kan meaning reed or hemp and bosm meaning fragrant. Both cannabis and calamus are fragrant, reedlike plants containing psychotropic compounds. While Benet's conclusion regarding the psychoactive use of cannabis is not universally accepted among Jewish scholars, there is general agreement that cannabis is used in talmudic sources to refer to hemp fibers, as hemp was a vital commodity before linen replaced it.
Hindu use
Cannabis is believed to have been used in India as early as 1000 B.C.E. During the Hindu festival of Holi, men consume a drink called bhang which contains cannabis flowers.
Charas, is smoked by some Shaivite devotees and cannabis itself is seen as a gift of Shiva to aid in sadhana. Some of the wandering ascetics in India known as sadhus smoke charas out of a clay chillum.

The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report describes some traditional Hindu spiritual uses of cannabis.


Connection of ganja with the worship of Shiva.

Worship of the hemp plant

Muslim use
Generally in orthodox Islam, the use of cannabis is deemed to be khamr, and therefore haraam (forbidden). As with most orthodoxies, early practices differ in this. Some say that, as hashish was introduced in post-Koranic times, the prohibition of khamr (literally, "fermented grape") did not apply to it. Others point to various hadith, which equate all intoxicants with khamr, and declare them all haraam, "if much intoxicates, then even a little is haraam".
Although cannabis use in Islamic society has been consistently present, often but not exclusively in the lower classes, its use explicitly for spiritual purposes is most noted among the Sufi. An account of the origin of this:

According to one Arab legend, Haydar, the Persian founder of the religious order of Sufi, came across the cannabis plant while wandering in the Persian mountains. Usually a reserved and silent man, when he returned to his monastery after eating some cannabis leaves, his disciples were amazed at how talkative and animated (full of spirit) he seemed. After cajoling Haydar into telling them what he had done to make him feel so happy, his disciples went out into the mountains and tried the cannabis for themselves. So it was, according to the legend, the Sufis came to know the pleasures of hashish. (Taken from the Introduction to A Comprehensive Guide to Cannabis Literature by Ernest Abel.)
This story is most likely a myth or a simplification but an interesting account nonetheless.
In addition, the warrior sect of the Hashashin were said to have eaten hashish before their assassinations and were given the name "Hashasin" accordingly. This notion, traditional in the West, can be inferred from Marco Polo's account of his travels, though it has been widely disputed.

Sikh use
The Sikh religion developed in the Punjab in Mughal times. The common use of bhang in religious festivals by Hindus carried over into Sikh practice as well. Sikhs were required to observe Dasehra with bhang, in commemoration of the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak.
The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report describes the traditional use of cannabis in the Sikh religion.


These views are far from universally accepted among Sikhs, and are in fact hotly contested. Most Sikhs consider Bhang as well as liquor to be against their religious teachings, and like the stories of muslim cannabis use, are excuses made by those wishing to partake in drugs, rather than proper religious teachings. http://www.amritworld.com/bhang.html

Rastafari use
Members of the Rastafari movement use cannabis as a part of their worship of Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia, whom they see as the returned Messiah, God incarnate. The movement was founded in the 1930's and while it is not known when Rastafarians first made cannabis into something sacred it is clear that by the late 1940s Rastafari was associated with cannabis smoking at the Pinnacle community of Leonard Howell. Rastafarians see cannabis as a sacramental and deeply beneficial plant that is the Tree of Life mentioned in the Bible. Bob Marley, amongst many others, said, "the herb ganja is the healing of the nations." The use of cannabis, and particularly of large pipes called chalices, is an integral part of what Rastafari call "reasoning sessions" where members join together to discuss life according to the Rasta perspective. They see cannabis as having the capacity to allow the user to penetrate the truth of how things are much more clearly, as if the wool had been pulled from one's eyes. Thus the Rastafari come together to smoke cannabis in order to discuss the truth with each other, reasoning it all out little by little through many sessions. They see the use of this plant as bringing them closer to nature and even rub the ash into their skin. In these ways Rastafari believe that cannabis brings the user closer to Jah, ie Selassie I, and pipes of cannabis are always dedicated to His Majesty before being smoked. While it is not necessary to use cannabis to be a Rastafarian, some feel that they must use it regularly as a part of their faith. "The herb is the key to new understanding of the self, the universe, and God. It is the vehicle to cosmic consciousness" according to Rastafari philosophy.
Other modern religious movements
Elders of the modern religious movement known as the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church consider cannabis to be the eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ.
Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that cannabis is the Tree of Life.

Other organized religions founded in the past century that treat cannabis as a sacrement are the THC Ministry, the Way of Infinite Harmony, Cantheism, the Cannabis Assembly and the Church of cognizance. Many individuals also consider their use of cannabis to be spiritual regardless of organized religion.

See also

Freedom of thought
THC Ministry
Free Exercise Clause
Church of cognizance

References

Booth, Martin. (2004). Cannabis: A History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-32220-8


The term drug seems so evil, it boils down to the human and biology is just one big drug.

http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Cannabis_(drug)

Cannabis (drug)
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Cite This Source


Cannabis is a psychoactive drug produced from parts of the Cannabis sativa plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant ("bud") (as well as the less psychoactive remains of the plant, and its highly psychoactive resin.) The major active chemical compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, commonly referred to as THC, has psychoactive and medicinal effects when consumed, usually by smoking or ingestion. Humans have been consuming cannabis since prehistory, though in the 20th century there was a rise in the use of cannabis for recreational and religious purposes. At the beginning of the 21st century, it is estimated that cannabis is used by four per cent of the world's adult population each year, making cannabis more popular than all other illicit drugs combined. The possession, use, or sale of psychoactive cannabis products became illegal in most parts of the world in the early 20th century. Since then, while some countries have intensified the enforcement of cannabis prohibition, others have reduced the priority of enforcement to the point of tolerating consumption. The supplying of cannabis remains illegal almost everywhere in the world through the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, while simple possession of small quantities is tolerated in a few countries.

Ancient history
Biologists generally agree that the cannabis plant first grew somewhere in the Himalayas. Evidence of the smoking of cannabis can be found as far back as the Neolithic age, where charred hemp seeds were found in a ritual brazier at a burial site in present day Romania. The most famous users of cannabis were the ancient Hindus. It was called ganjika in Sanskrit (ganja in modern Indian languages). According to legend, Shiva, the destroyer of evil in the Hindu trinity, told his disciples to revere the plant. The ancient drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas as a sacred intoxicating hallucinogen, was sometimes associated with cannabis. It has also been identified with a number of other plants and a mushroom, Amanita muscaria, so the involvement of cannabis cannot be definitively quantified.
The citizens of the Persian Empire would partake in the ceremonial burning of massive cannabis bonfires, directly exposing themselves and neighboring tribes to the billowing fumes, oftentimes for over 24 hours.

Cannabis was also well known to the Assyrians, who discovered it from the Aryans. Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called it qunubu, or the drug for sadness. Also introduced by the Aryans, the Scythians as well as the Thracians/Dacians used it, whose shamans (the kapnobatai - "those who walk on smoke/clouds") burned cannabis flowers in order to induce trances. The cult of Dionysus, which is believed to have originated in Thrace, is also believed to have inhaled cannabis smoke.

Dried marijuana leaves were found with a 2,800 year old mummy of a shaman in Xingjian, China, thought to be from the Tang dynasty.

Religious and spiritual use
Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BCE, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. Some historians and etymologists have claimed that cannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews, early Christians and Muslims of the Sufi order. In India, it has been used by some of the wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries, and in modern times the Rastafari movement has embraced it. Elders of the modern religious movement known as the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church consider cannabis to be the eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ. Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that Cannabis is the Tree of Life. Other organized religions founded in the past century that treat cannabis as a sacrament are the THC Ministry, the Way of Infinite Harmony, Cantheism, the Cannabis Assembly and the Church of cognizance. Many individuals also consider their use of cannabis to be spiritual regardless of organized religion.

Medical use
Medically, cannabis is most often used as an appetite stimulant and pain reliever for certain illnesses, including cancer, AIDS and other diseases. It is used to relieve glaucoma and certain neurological illnesses such as epilepsy, migraine and bipolar disorder. It has also been found to relieve nausea for chemotherapy patients. A recent study has also indicated that cannabis can be used to prevent Alzheimer's disease. The medical use of cannabis is politically controversial, but physicians sometimes recommend it informally. A synthetic version of the major active chemical in cannabis, THC, is available in many countries in the form of a pill as the prescription drug dronabinol (Marinol). THC has also been found to reduce arterial blockages. A sublingual spray derived from an extract of cannabis has also been approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis in Canada as the prescription drug Sativex—this drug may now be legally imported into the United Kingdom and Spain on prescription.

Relationship with other Illicit Drugs
It has been widely believed since the 1950's that cannabis is a gateway drug, leading its users to other drugs such as cocaine or heroin. There have been many studies conducted on this subject recently.Some of these studies have found the assertion to be false, whereas others have found that it is true. Because of this, it is logical to say that no one yet has found a middle ground on this subject.

Despite the conflicting results of these studies, much of the research on both sides suggests that the legal status of marijuana may have some correlation with the "gateway theory". In many countries cannabis is outlawed, so the cannabis user may very easily find himself or herself in situations where other illegal drugs are being used, or he or she may make acquaintance with people who use other substances illegally through the process of purchasing cannabis from black market dealers. Situations such as these may lead to the user moving on to other illegal drugs.

New breeding and cultivation techniques
Advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the diversity and potency of cannabis strains since 1970, and these strains are now widely smoked all over the world. These advances are known as the sinsemilla techniques of production; sinsemilla, Spanish for without seed, are the dried, seedless female flowers of cannabis plants which have been grown in the absence of males to ensure no pollination takes place. Because THC potency and production drops off once pollination takes place, various techniques such as seed banks, hydroponics, cloning, lighting techniques, and the sea of green method have been utilized, in part as a response to prohibition enforcement efforts which have made outdoor cultivation more risky; thus, efficient indoor cultivation has become more common. These same advances have led to fewer seeds being present in cannabis currently than were present 20 years ago.

Many opponents of cannabis use, both in and out of government, have exaggerated the increases in potency and ramifications thereof. In the United States, government advertisements encourage parents to disregard their own experience with cannabis when speaking to their children, on the premise that pot today is significantly stronger and thus more dangerous than that which they themselves might have smoked in the past. In a general pattern of proposing reverses in cannabis rescheduling, the UK government is considering scheduling stronger cannabis (skunk, in local parlance) as a separate, more restricted substance. Many cannabis proponents disagree vehemently, reasoning that as one must smoke less cannabis to achieve the same effect, it actually is safer and less potentially carcinogenic in the long run than that which was smoked in earlier times.

There are two recognized subspecies of Cannabis sativa, Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa and C. sativa subsp. indica. Sativas are reputed to induce a noticeably more cerebral high, while indicas induce more of a body high, also referred to as "couch-lock."

Preparations for human consumption

Cannabis is prepared for human consumption in several forms:


Marijuana, the resin gland-rich flowering tops of female plants.
Hashish, a concentrated resin mostly comprised of trichomes that are extracted physically, as with ice hash, or chemically.
Kief or kif, a powder containing the resin glands (glandular trichomes, often incorrectly called "crystals" or "pollen"); it is produced by sifting marijuana and leaves.
Charas, hand-made hashish produced by hand-rubbing the resin from the resin gland-rich parts of the plant. Often thin dark rectangular pieces.
Bhang, prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant and used as a drink.
Hash oil, resulting from extraction or distillation of THC-rich parts of the plant.
Budder, processed hash oil. Ordinary hash oil is whipped to incorporate air, making it a foam. It has been marketed as being anywhere between 82% and 100% THC, though no actual lab tests have been done to validate this claim.
Resin, when smoked through a pipe all of the above will cause black goo to create a film on the sides or collect in certain nooks depending on its shape. This can be collected and resmoked.
Shake or leaf. Leaves from below the flowering buds on which the sticky trichomes have collected can be smoked on their own, mixed with any of the above, or cooked and eaten.
These forms are certainly not exclusive and combinations of two or more different forms of cannabis are common. Mixing different forms is done mainly to obtain a different or more powerful effect. Between the many different strains of Cannabis and the various ways that it is prepared for consumption, there are innumerable types of blends or mixes, similar to the countless varieties of mixed alcoholic beverages that are available.

Smoking
There are a wide variety of methods of smoking cannabis. The most popular include the jpint, the blunt, the bong, the pipe more commonly called a "bowl" or "piece", the shotgun, and the one-hitter. These are sometimes smoked inside a small closed area (such as a car) used to trap smoke so that it is inhaled with every breath. This is often referred to as "hotboxing", "fishbowling", "clam-baking", "green-housing", or, in Australia, as using a "Dutch Oven". In Canada, it's referred to as a 'hotbox'. Variants of this include the 'Jamaican Shower/Bath/Sauna'.

To create a jpint, cannabis is rolled up into a cigarette, using rolling paper (where available). Brown paper, newsprint, and other assorted paper products can be used. Cannabis cigars, or blunts, can also be created by using the wrapper of a standard cigar.

A bong is a water pipe through which cannabis smoke is filtered. Variants include the gravity bong, which consists of a cone atop a perforated or cut water bottle. This method of cannabis smoking is one of the most efficient, as the presence of a chamber and carburetor reduce smoke waste. One can consume massive amounts of cannabis in one "hit".

Pipes are usually made of blown glass, wood, or non-reactive metals. Metal pipes are often made of interchangeable pieces. Glass pipes often have a carburetor, colloquially referred to as a carb, rush, choke, shotgun,or shooter (British use) that is covered for suction then released for inhalation. Some users also prefer vertically held pipes, or improvised pipes ("tinnies") made from aluminium foil (either constructed entirely from the foil or by using it as a gauze), small plumbing fittings, soda cans, crisp fruits or vegetables, or the cardboard from bathroom-tissue or aluminium foil rolls.

A "one-hitter" is a device that allows smaller amounts of cannabis to be smoked with equal suction. Cannabis buds are loaded into a compartment for combustion. The smoker then lights the compartment and the entire amount of cannabis is smoked. This is repeated for each hit. This method is also efficient in titrating the exact dose desired. One-hitters are often disguised as actual cigarettes in order to mislead or deceive people into believing that the person is smoking an authentic cigarette.

Vaporization
With a vaporizer, cannabis can be heated to a temperature of about 365 °F (185 °C), at which the active ingredients are released into gaseous form with little or no burning of the plant material. With this method, the user does not inhale as many (or any) toxic chemicals depending on the quality of the vaporizer. Scientific studies by MAPS/NORML have yielded varied results on the effectiveness of vaporizing as a method of cannabis consumption. One particular study by MAPS/NORML found 95% THC and no toxins delivered in the vapor. However, an older study by MAPS/NORML showed minimal reduction of toxins.
Hot-knifing (Blades)
Hot-knifing, spots, blasting or doing blades is a process in which the tips of two knives are heated to a very high temperature, often by inserting them into the heating element of an electric or gas stove. The cannabis is then pressed between the heated knife-tips, rapidly combusting, or vaporising it depending upon the amount of heat used. The vaporized cannabis is funneled into the mouth of the smoker through the use of a glass or plastic bottle, empty pen, or other hollow tube or funnel or free handed.
In New Zealand and Australia, this is known as "spots". "Spots" can refer to both the activity of hot-kniving (aka "spotting") and the small, rolled balls of cannabis consumed in the process. Spots are much more efficient than bongs or jpints; as the amount of cannabis required to constitute a hit is less and the dosage is easily controlled. This method is most commonly employed with high quality cannabis or hashish.

Another method of "spotting" uses knife blades heated to a much lower temperature, only hot enough to vaporise the active ingredients, leaving the organic material scorched, rather than burnt to ash, thus decreasing potential harmful consequences of the smoke itself.

Oral consumption
Cannabis may be orally consumed. In order to release its psychoactive properties hashish can be eaten raw or mixed with water but marijuana will only be absorbed into the bloodstream by blending it with ethanol or lipids. The effects of the drug take longer to begin, but last longer and may be perceived as more physical rather than mental, though there are claims to the contrary. A dose of oral cannabis is often considered to give a stronger experience than the equivalent dose of smoked cannabis. A common belief holds that smoking cannabis leads to a large amount of the active compounds being lost in the exhaled smoke or simply decomposing on burning, whereas ingested cannabis results in 100% consumption of the active compounds, an assertion which cannot be confirmed without objective analysis. It is thought that the active component of cannabis, Δ9-THC, is converted to the more psychoactive 11-hydroxy-THC in the liver. Titration is much more complex than through inhalation. Common preparations involve blending with butter, to create Cannabutter that is used in preparing Brownies, fudge, cookies, ganja goo balls or space cakes. When blended with melted butter, the drug is finely minced almost into powder form. However, there are some preparations that do not contain butter in them and therefore fall into a slightly different category; these include the Leary biscuit, which requires less preparation than more "conventional" recipes. Infusion in drinks containing milk and flavoring herbs is also possible, and more common in India. Hollowed-out gumballs filled with the drug, wrapped and distributed labeled as Greenades, were identified in 2006 as being used by high school students in the United States.
As with other drugs that are taken orally, it is sometimes customary to fast before taking the drug to increase the effect, possibly because an empty stomach will absorb the drug faster so it 'hits' stronger. However, some people do eat before consuming the drug because eating it on an empty stomach makes them feel sick. Still, time to effect onset is an hour or sometimes more, as opposed to smoking, where effects can be almost immediate.

Cannabis can also be leached in high-percentage ethanol (often grain alcohol) to create Green Dragon. This process is often used to utilize otherwise low-quality stems and leaves.

Cannabis can also be consumed as a tea. THC is lipophilic and only slightly water soluble, with a solubility of only 2.8 grams per litre, but enough to make a tea effective. Water-based infusion is generally considered to be inefficient.

The seeds of the plant, high in protein and fatty acids, are appreciated by many species of birds. Many countries, including the United States, make the possession of viable cannabis seeds illegal, although they can be openly bought and sold legally in much of Europe, including the UK.

Immediate effects of consumption

The nature and intensity of the immediate effects of cannabis consumption vary according to the dose, the species or hybridization of the source plant, the method of consumption, the user's mental and physical characteristics (such as possible tolerance), and the environment of consumption. This is sometimes referred to as set and setting. Smoking the same cannabis either in a different frame of mind (set) or in a different location (setting) can alter the effects or perception of the effects by the individual. Effects of cannabis consumption may be loosely classified as cognitive and physical. Anecdotal evidence suggests that drug varieties of Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa tend to produce more of the cognitive or perceptual effects, while C. sativa subsp. indica tends to produce more of the physical effects.

Active ingredients, metabolism, and method of activity
Of the approximately 315 different psychoactive chemicals found in Cannabis, the main active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC). THC can degrade to other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol or cannabinol, which can make one feel sleepy and disoriented. Different cannabis products have different ratios of these and other cannabinoids. Depending on the ratio, the quality and nature of the "high" will vary.

THC has an effect on the modulation of the immune system, which may have an effect on malignant cells, but there is insufficient scientific study to determine whether this might promote or limit the cause of cancer. Cannabinoid receptors are also present in the human reproductive system, but there is insufficient scientific study to conclusively determine the effects of cannabis on reproduction. Mild allergies to cannabis may be possible in some members of the population.

A study has shown that holding cannabis smoke in one's lungs for longer periods of time does not conclusively increase THC's effects on psychological test performance. However, a more recent study by the same authors indicates that a longer breath-holding duration increases the subjective ratings of ones' "high." This latter study also found that a long breath-holding duration decreased subjects' subjective ratings of "calmness" more than a short breath-holding duration. Additionally, subjects who held cannabis smoke in their lungs for a long duration felt slightly less "relaxation" while subjects who held the smoke for a short period gave higher "relaxation" ratings.

Lethal dose
According to the Merck Index, 12th edition, the LD50, the lethal dose for 50% of rats tested by inhalation, is 42 mg/kg of body weight. That is the equivalent of a 165 lb (75 kg) man inhaling all of the THC in 21 one-gram cigarettes of high-potency (15% THC) cannabis buds at once, assuming no THC was lost through burning or exhalation, though a substantial amount of THC is lost through smoking, making the actual amount of cannabis required higher. For oral consumption, the LD50 of THC for rats is 1270 mg/kg and 730 mg/kg for males and females, respectively, equivalent to the THC in about a pound of 15% THC cannabis. Only with intravenous administration may such a level be even theoretically possible. The ratio of cannabis required to saturate cannaboid receptors to the amount of cannabis required to have a fatal over dose is 1:40,000.

Psychiatric Effects
Studies have found that the use of cannabis can relieve tics in patients suffering from OCD and/or Tourette syndrome. Patients treated with marijuana reported a significant decrease in both motor and vocal tics, some of 50% or more. Some decrease in obsessive-compulsive behavior were also found.

Types of Cannabis
There are many different strains of Cannabis ranging in strengths by concentration of THC and are usually grouped into three areas of lows, mids, highs as listed:
Lows

Ditchweed, this is a rarely, if ever, sold form of Cannabis
Shwag, schwag, or shwas is the lowest potent form of sold Cannabis
Mexican Rad Hair, known for having the bud covered in tiny orange hair-looking stubs

Mids

Nugg,
KB, or kind-bud. Named becuase it will not make you sleepy like the lower forms of cannabis
Hawian Snow, this type of Cannabis is named for its flavor when exhaled, which is like coconut
''Purple Haze", the most common haze is purple, but this can also come in different colors such as blue

Highs

Northern Lights,
Thunder,
Blueberry, this is commonly sold as just blueberry flavored, but can be mixed with nearly any flavor such as blueberry-lemon-lime. Other flavors also exist such as bubblegum

Health issues and the effects of cannabis
There has been a variety of studies investigating the health issues related to cannabis use and its long term use, and while some evidence appears strong, other studies have produced results that are far more controversial or are unverified.
The most obvious confounding factor in cannabis research is the very prevalent usage of other recreational drugs, including alcohol and tobacco. Such complications imply that cannabis studies must have stronger controls and investigations into the symptoms of cannabis that may also be caused by tobacco, for example, cannot be demonstrated. In addition, research using cannabis is heavily restricted in many countries, reducing the studies funded or approved. More controversial results that have been published in cannabis studies include one that suggests that cannabis may be less likely to cause emphysema or cancer than tobacco; other studies have suggested that cannabis may be less likely to cause birth defects or developmental delays in the children of users than other drugs would. According to a United Kingdom government report, using cannabis is less dangerous than both tobacco and alcohol in social harms, physical harm and addiction.

Research between the use of cannabis and mental illness has also brought significant results. Cannabis use has generally higher among sufferers of schizophrenia, but the causality between the two has not been established. Another study concluded that sustained early-adolescent cannabis use among genetically predisposed individuals has been associated with a variety of mental illness outcomes; ranging from psychotic episodes to clinical schizophrenia.

Legality
Since the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. Naturally, these laws impact adversely on the cannabis plant's cultivation for non-recreational purposes, but there are many regions where, under certain circumstances, handling of cannabis is legal or licensed, and others where laws against its use, possession, or sale are not enforced. Many jurisdictions have also decriminalized possession of small quantities of cannabis, so that it is punished by confiscation or a fine, rather than imprisonment. By effectively removing the user from the criminal justice system, decriminalization focuses more on those who traffic and sell the drug on the black market. However, this does not solve the problem of how a user will obtain the "legal amount" of cannabis, since buying or growing cannabis is still illegal. Increasingly, many jurisdictions also permit cannabis use for medicinal purposes. Some countries allow the sale through drug companies. However, simple possession can carry long jail sentences in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution.


Recent history
Under the name cannabis, 19th century medical practitioners sold the drug, (usually as a tincture) popularizing the word amongst English-speakers. It was rumoured to have been used to treat Queen Victoria's menstrual pains as her personal physician, Sir John Russell Reynolds, was a staunch supporter of the benefits of cannabis. Cannabis was also openly available from shops in the US. By the end of the 19th century, its medicinal use began to fall as other drugs like aspirin took over its use as a pain reliever.
In 1894, the Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission commissioned by the UK Secretary of State and the government of India, was instrumental in the decision not to criminalize the drug in those countries. The Report, which at over 500 pages remains one of the most complete collections of information on cannabis in existence, shows the stark contrast in the way that the American and British governments went about deciding whether to criminalize cannabis.

The name marijuana (Mexican Spanish marihuana, mariguana) is associated almost exclusively with the plant's psychoactive use. The term is now well known in English largely due to the efforts of American drug prohibitionists during the 1920s and 1930s, which deliberately used a Mexican name for cannabis in order to turn the populace against the idea that it should be legal. (See 1937 Marihuana Tax Act)

Although cannabis has been used for its psychoactive effects since ancient times, it first became well known in the United States during the jazz music scene of the late 1920s and 1930s. Louis Armstrong became a prominent and life-long devotee. It was popular in the blues scene as well, and eventually became a prominent part of 1960s counterculture.

Decriminalization and legalization

In recent decades, a movement to decriminalize cannabis has arisen in several countries. This movement seeks to make simple possession of cannabis punishable by only confiscation or a fine, rather than prison. In the past several years, the movement has started to have some successes. These include Denver, Colorado legalizing possession of up to an ounce of cannabis, a broad coalition of political parties in Amsterdam, Netherlands unveiling a pilot program to allow farmers to legally grow it, and Massachusetts voting in favor of a bill to decriminalize the possession of up to an ounce of cannabis.

In Alaska, cannabis was decided legal for in-home, personal use under the Ravin vs. State ruling in 1975. This ruling allowed up to four ounces of cannabis for these purposes. In response to former Governor Frank Murkowski's successive attempt to re-criminalize cannabis, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against the state. On July 17, 2006, Superior Court Judge Patricia Collins awarded the Case Summary judgement to the ACLU. In her ruling, she said "No specific argument has been advanced in this case that possession of more than 1 ounce of cannabis, even within the privacy of the home, is constitutionally protected conduct under Ravin or that any plaintiff or ACLU of Alaska member actually possesses more than 1 ounce of cannabis in their homes." This does not mean that the legal possession threshold has been reduced to one ounce, as this was a mere case summary review filed by the ACLU, not a full case. Reinforcing Ravin, Collins wrote "A lower court cannot reverse the State Supreme Court's 1975 decision in Ravin v. State" and "Unless and until the Supreme Court directs otherwise, Ravin is the law in this state and this court is duty bound to follow that law". The law regarding possession of cannabis has not changed in Alaska, and the Supreme Court has declined to review the case, therefore the law still stands at 4 ounces.

In 2002, Nevada voters defeated a ballot question which would legalize up to 3 ounces for adults 21 and older by 39% to 61%. In 2006, a similar Nevada ballot initiative, which would have legalized and regulated the cultivation, distribution, and possession of up to 1 ounce of marijuana by adults 21 and older, was defeated by 44% to 56%.

In 2001 in the United Kingdom, it was announced that cannabis would become a Class C drug, rather than a Class B, this change took effect on January 29th, 2004. Since then there has recently been some controversy amongst UK politicians about the message this sends out, with some calling for its reclassification to Class B.

The Government of Mexico voted to legalize the possession of cannabis under 5 grams on April 28, 2006. However, as of May 3, 2006, Mexican President Vicente Fox has said that he will not sign this proposed law until Congress removes the parts that would decriminalize the possession of small quantities of drugs and vetoed the bill on May 4, 2006, sparking broad controversy over the bill. In the early summer of 2006 Fox and the Mexican congress came to an agreement and legalized possession of small amounts (and also measured amounts of other drugs). On July 17th, 2006, Italian Social Solidarity Minister Paolo Ferrero, speaking of the urgent need for depenalising the consumption of light drugs, said that "a jpint is less harmful than a litre of wine." In South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory, two plants both less than 6 feet tall are allowed for personal use.

Legality in the United States
The United States federal government has illegalized the sale, transport, and possession of cannabis since 1937. Federal law in the United States preempts conflicting state and local laws. Nevertheless, some states and local governments have established laws attempting to decriminalize cannabis. Other state and local governments ask law enforcement agencies to limit enforcement of drug laws with respect to cannabis.

The National Center for Natural Products Research in Oxford, Mississippi is the only facility in the United States that is federally licensed to cultivate cannabis for scientific research. The Center is part of the School of Pharmacy at the University of Mississippi.

See also

Illegal drug trade
Psychoactive drugs

References
Notes

Bibliography

Howard Markel "For Addicts, Relief May Be an Office Visit Away". New York Times, .
Louise Arsenault, Mary Cannon, Richie Poulton, Robin Murray, Avshalom Caspi, and Terrie E. Moffitt (2002). "Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longtudinal prospective study". British Medical Journal 325 1212 – 1213.
Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt, Mary Cannon, Joseph McClay, Robin Murray, HonaLee Harrington, Alan Taylor, Louise Arsenault, Ben Williams, Antony Braithwaite, Richie Poulton, and Ian W. Craig (2005). "Moderation of the effect of adult-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the Catchol-O-Methyltransferase gene: Longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction". Biol Psychiatry 25 1117 – 1127.
Henderson, Mark "One in four at risk of cannabis psychosis". The Times, .
Bruce Mirken and Neel Makwana (Aston Birmingham): "Psychosis, Hype And Baloney". AlterNet, .
James Huff and Po Chan (October 2000). "Antitumor Effects of THC". Environmental Health Perspectives 108(10) Correspondence. PMID 11097557.
Cannabis: A History (2005). Martin Booth - ISBN 0-312-32220-8


Quote:
I'm really discusted that people called magicians exist in this subject areas. All slight of hand frauds. In its final form and from the things it came from, anointing oil is just good food with nice effects. Denied by the magician trash and Temple butt heads.

What is with all these turkey magicians? They the same kind folks that disappear with your money through the back door during a drug deal.

If you'll keep secrets and tell lies you be a great magician. No magic in this world bigger than hard work and integrity.

Wow, what an eye full this reference is to me. I suggest anybody try to do research from here.

Funny though, I just fell upon these articles looking for something entirely different. Good for me and you. UNDERSTAND more then ever before. -goobud
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RevErikM
Shaman
Shaman


Joined: 17 May 2005
Posts: 233

PostPosted: Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I've read The Magic of Abra-Melin and he used the oil as part of devil-summoning rituals, because it was his understanding through Judaism that man was given dominion over the earth, and since the devils were cast down to the earth, man also had dominion over them. The oil was used to make sure one was "right with God" before summoning a devil so the devil could not possibly find a way to take advantage of the man who had summoned it.

In the book, it says he came upon this system of magic because he was only allowed to pass the practices of the kabalah down to his first-born son, and he wanted to make sure his second-born son had a magic system he could use as well. It's said that Abra-Melin travelled the world seeking out a functional magic system, and he even tried out the witch's ointment of the "Night Flyers," a group of Europeans who prepared an ointment made of belladonna which was then applied to the palms of the hands or the genitals to allow one to fly and forecast the future. This is just one of the tales in the book about his quest for another magic system outside of the kaballah.

But, the history of the book is unclear, and some suppose that it was penned by a French scholar and no one even knows for sure whether the Hebrew "Abra-Melin" depicted in the book even existed. The book was published at a time when occult studies in Europe were at an all-time high, and it is very possible that it was a fabrication or a composite of other works intended to make a publisher some quick cash. Despite this possibility, the book has some exceptionally interesting magic techniques which are compatible with the Christian and Talmudic faiths so it would make for a good read for anyone interested in the arcane.

For purposes of my own magical practice, I found the book of very little value because it was extremely "magician" based - and magicians typically do all their work through summoned demons, and are more often than not incapable of doing anything more than summoning a demon and bending it to their will. While there is of course the distinct possibility that a successful magician has literally created the demon he/she had summoned and enslaved, I prefer to work directly with bending material reality in my practice without the symbolics, trappings, or perceived use of an outside power greater than my own. In the same way, I know that what I need for my practice does not exist in someone else's writing, I will only be able to write about it myself because I have stepped off in a direction not chronicled directly by anyone else who has walked in the way I do.

As a side note, an essential ingredient to any magic potion or holy annointing oil has to be the force of the Divine, or the Spirit of God, or whatever else you would like to call it. If you do not take the time to either infuse your potion/HAO with the essence of existence, or pray intensely for the Spirit of God to enter it for a specific purpose, you have not completed the recipe. This fundamental aspect of preparing a sacred concoction is implied in most sources you will find for the blending of magical elixirs, and when applied to the point where the concoction glows brilliantly with the intent-focused presence of Divine Power, the concoction will act not just upon the physical body, but also upon the spiritual-energy body. Chanting, singing, praying, and emitting a spiritual chorus are some of the easier ways of directing the Divine Source into your elixirs, and will not be as difficult or as unappealing to some as direct motivation of primal spiritual forces for infusion.
_________________
Experience things for yourself.
Please check out my book at:
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The GCW
Cannabis Sacrament Minister
Cannabis Sacrament Minister


Joined: 19 Nov 2003
Posts: 370

PostPosted: Sat Feb 17, 2007 4:29 am    Post subject: KANEH BOSM Reply with quote

KANEH BOSM

In 1936, a Polish etymologist discovered, kaneh bosm is the pre-Semitic Hebrew origins of cannabis in the Old Testament and was mistranslated in five locations before the King James Version. In 1980, Hebrew University in Jerusalem confirmed kaneh bosm was used in the holy anointing oil described in Exodus 30:23.

Those five locations are Exodus 30:23; Song of Solomon 4:14; Isaiah 43:24; Jeremiah 6:20; and Ezekiel 27:19.

Kaneh bosm was mistranslated to cane or calamus, sweet cane, fragrant cane or sweet-smelling incense, etc., depending on the translation.

-0-

KANEH BOSM

THE HIDDEN STORY OF CANNABIS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

By Chris Bennet

http://www.cannabisculture.com/backissues/cc05/kanehb.html

-0-

There is more... by Christ Bennet

-0-

Cannabis and the Christ: Jesus used Marijuana


Part 4 of "When Smoke Gets in my I" a series on the history of cannabis and human consciousness.



"If you know the truth, the truth will make you free." (John 8:32)

Jesus used Marijuana

http://www.cannabisculture.com/backissues/cc11/christ.html
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